Ulyana Munoz Acuna, Nikola Jancovski and Edward J. Kennelly Pages 1560 - 1580 ( 21 )
Many new polyisoprenylated benzophenones with a bicyclo[3.3.1]-nonane-2,4,9-trione core structure have been isolated from plants in the Clusiaceae family, and their potent biological properties have been the subject of several studies. This review summarizes the biological activities reported for these secondary metabolites including cytotoxic, antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities. Our efforts during the past years have foremost been directed towards isolating new polyisoprenylated benzophenones, as well as understanding the possible target and mechanism of action through which these compounds arrest cancer cells and inhibit the progression of the cell-cycle. The transcription of genes is affected in cancer cells treated with polyisoprenylated benzophenones; the oncogene c-Myb is down-regulated and endoplasmatic stress genes XBP1, ATF4, and DDIT3/CHOP are turned on. Consequently, the expression of iNOS and cell cycle regulators such as cyclin D and E are reduced. Evidence presented by independent investigators suggests that polyisoprenylated benzophenones affect the mediators in the Akt/mTOR stress pathway, although the specific target remains to be discovered. In addition, benzophenones isolated from plants display high antioxidant capacity and protect cells from oxidative stress and the formation of ROS involved during the inflammatory process. Since antiviral activity was initially reported for guttiferone A, potent synthetic analogues have been developed as effective new non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI) to treat drug resistant HIV-1. In addition, benzophenones exert antimicrobial effects particularly against MRSA. The structure-activity relationships of polyisoprenylated benzophenones from natural sources and those of synthetic analogues are included in this review. Absorption, metabolism, and elimination of benzophenones are also discussed.
Clusiaceae, polyisoprenylated, benzophenones, garcinol, cytotoxicity, antimicrobial, apoptosis
Department of Biological Sciences, Lehman College and The Graduate Center, The City University of New York, 250 Bedford Park Boulevard West, Bronx, New York 10468, USA.