Antonino Tuttolomondo, Riccardo Di Sciacca, Domenico Di Raimondo, Chiara Renda, Antonio Pinto and Giuseppe Licata Pages 1240 - 1260 ( 21 )
Animal models of focal ischaemia induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) provide most evidence for cellular inflammatory responses in stroke. Permanent MCAO results in a modest neutrophil infiltration at 24 h after ischaemia, predominantly around arterial vessels at the margins of infarction, whereas MCAO with subsequent reperfusion is associated with substantial infiltration by neutrophils throughout the entire infarct. Several studies show that C-reactive protein (CRP), an inflammatory marker, is associated with stroke outcomes and future vascular events. Several drugs, especially hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins), have been demonstrated to reduce hsCRP levels independently of their effects on plasma cholesterol. Various cytokines were shown to be expressed in the injured brain. Recent investigations demonstrated that mRNAs of above cytokines were induced in the ischemic rat brain. TNF-α is a pleiotropic cytokine that mediates key roles in many physiological and pathological cellular processes including acute and chronic inflammation, programmed cell death or apoptosis, anti-tumor responses, and infection. Pharmaceutical industry to search a small molecule TNF Inhibitor have taken multiple strategies. Significant protection after in vivo oral use of SB-239063 from brain injury and neurological deficits was observed in one study. In the same study significant protection from brain injury and neurological deficits was also demonstrated due to i.v post-stroke treatment with the same compound. Leukocyte-endothelial adhesion process consists of several steps, beginning with rolling of the leukocyte on the endothelial surface until it has slowed down to such a degree that it sticks to the endothelium. Treatment with a murine anti-ICAM-1 antibody (enlimomab) has been investigated in patients with acute ischemic stroke in the Enlimomab Acute Stroke Trial (EAST). Unfortunately, the case fatality rate in this trial was significantly higher in the enlimomab patient group than in the placebo group. Furthermore, experimental data have shown that focal cerebral ischemia induces a time-dependent activation of granulocytes, lymphocytes, and macrophages. Dissipation of ATP by CD39 reduced P2X7 receptor stimulation and thereby suppressed baseline leukocyte alphaMbeta2-integrin expression. As alphaMbeta2-integrin blockade reversed the postischemic, inflammatory phenotype of Cd39-/- mice, these data suggest that phosphohydrolytic activity on the leukocyte surface suppresses cellcell interactions that would otherwise promote thrombosis or inflammation., Inflammation, as, a, Therapeutic, Target, in, Acute, Ischemic, Stroke, Treatment
Dipartimento Biomedico di Medicina Interna e Specialistica, Universita degli Studi di Palermo, Italy, P.zza delle Cliniche, n.2, 90127 Palermo, Italy.