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Ethnobotany and Natural Products: The Search for New Molecules, New Treatments of Old Diseases or a Better Understanding of Indigenous Cultures?

[ Vol. 3 , Issue. 2 ]

Author(s):

Michael Heinrich   Pages 141 - 154 ( 14 )

Abstract:


Results of various projects on Mexican Indian ethnobotany and some of the subsequent pharmacological and phytochemical studies are summarised focusing both on chemical-pharmacological as well as anthropological (ethnopharmacological) aspects of our research. We have identified taste and smell properties of medicinal (vs. non-medicinal) plants as important indigenous selection criteria. There exist welldefined criteria specific for each culture, which lead to the selection of a plant as a medicine. This field research has also formed a basis for studies on bioactive natural products from selectedspecies. The bark of Guazuma ulmifolia showed antisecretory activity (cholera toxin-induced chloride secretion in rabbit distal colon in an USSING chamber). Active constituents are procyanidins with a polymerisation degree of eight or higher. Byrsonima crassifolia yielded proanthocyanidins with (+) epicatechin units and Baccharis conferta showed a dose-dependant antispasmodic effect with the effect being particularly strong in flavonoid-rich fractions. Our ethnopharmacological research led to the identification of sesquiterpene lactones (SLs) like parthenolide as potent and relatively specific inhibitors of the transcription factor NF-κB, an important mediator of the inflammatory process. The inhibitory effect of SLs is very strongly enhanced by the presence of such groups as the isoprenoid ring system, a lactone ring containing a conjugated exomethylene group (α- methylene-γ-lactone) and an α,β-unsaturated cyclopentenone or a conjugated ester moieties. Our work also elucidated the NF-κB inhibiting activity of the photosensitiser phaeophorbide A from Solanum diflorum (Solanaceae) in PMA induced HeLa cells. Hyptis verticillata yielded a series of lignans as well as sideritoflavone, rosmarinic acid and (R)-5-hydroxypyrrolidin-2-one and is rich in essential oil (rich in α- pinene, β-pinene and thymol). Other species investigated include Begonia heracleifolia, Crossopetalum gaumerii, Epaltes mexicana, Pluchea symphytifolia and Xanthosoma robustum.

Keywords:

Ethnobotany, ethnopharmacological, proanthocyanidins, Hyptis verticillata, cyclopentenone, parthenolide, Xanthosoma robustum, rosmarinic acid, (R)-5-hydroxypyrrolidin-2-one

Affiliation:

Centre for Pharmacognosy and Phytotherapy, The School of Pharmacy, Univ. London, 29-39 Brunswick Square, London, WC1N 1AX., UK



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