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Snake Venom Phospholipase A2 Inhibitors: Medicinal Chemistry and Therapeutic Potential

[ Vol. 7 , Issue. 8 ]

Author(s):

Silvana Marcussi, Carolina D. Sant'Ana, Clayton Z. Oliveira, Aristides Quintero Rueda, Danilo L. Menaldo, Rene O. Beleboni, Rodrigo G. Stabeli, Jose R. Giglio, Marcos R. M. Fontes and Andreimar M. Soares   Pages 743 - 756 ( 14 )

Abstract:


Phospholipases A2 (PLA2s) are commonly found in snake venoms from Viperidae, Hydrophidae and Elaphidae families and have been extensively studied due to their pharmacological and physiopathological effects in living organisms. This article reports a review on natural and artificial inhibitors of enzymatic, toxic and pharmacological effects induced by snake venom PLA2s. These inhibitors act on PLA2s through different mechanisms, most of them still not completely understood, including binding to specific domains, denaturation, modification of specific amino acid residues and others. Several substances have been evaluated regarding their effects against snake venoms and isolated toxins, including plant extracts and compounds from marine animals, mammals and snakes serum plasma, in addition to poly or monoclonal antibodies and several synthetic molecules. Research involving these inhibitors may be useful to understand the mechanism of action of PLA2s and their role in envenomations caused by snake bite. Furthermore, the biotechnological potential of PLA2 inhibitors may provide therapeutic molecular models with antiophidian activity to supplement the conventional serum therapy against these multifunctional enzymes.

Keywords:

Phospholipases A2, phospholipase A2 inhibitors, natural and artificial inhibitors, snake venoms

Affiliation:

FCFRP-USP, Ribeirao Preto-SP, Brasil.



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