Craig W. Lindsley, Scott E. Wolkenberg and Gene G. Kinney Pages 1883 - 1896 ( 14 )
Clinically utilized antipsychotic agents share as a common mechanism the ability to antagonize dopamine D2 receptors and it is widely assumed that this activity contributes to their efficacy against the positive symptoms of schizophrenia. The efficacy of currently marketed antipsychotic agents on the negative and cognitive symptoms of this disease, however, is not optimal. One alternate hypothesis to the “dopamine hypothesis” of schizophrenia derives from the observation that antagonists of NMDA receptor activity better mimic the symptomatology of schizophrenia in its entirety than do dopamine agonists. Findings from this line of research have led to the NMDA receptor hypofunction (or glutamate dysfunction) hypothesis of schizophrenia, which complements existing research implicating dopamine dysfunction in the disease. According to the NMDA receptor hypofunction hypothesis, any treatment that enhances NMDA receptor activity may prove useful for the treatment of the complex symptoms that define schizophrenia. This idea is now supported by numerous clinical studies that have reported an efficacious response following treatment with activators of the NMDA receptor co-agonist glycineB site. One area of study, aimed at potentiating the NMDA receptor via activation of the glycineB site is small molecule blockade of the glycine reuptake transporter type 1 (GlyT1). Broadly, these efforts have focused on derivatives of the substrate inhibitor, sarcosine, and non-sarcosine based GlyT1 inhibitors. Accordingly, the following review discusses the development of both sarcosine and non-sarcosine based GlyT1 inhibitors and their current status as putative treatments for schizophrenia and other disorders associated with NMDA receptor hypoactivity
NMDA receptor, fluoxetine, Non-sarcosine-Derived GlyT1 Inhibitors, GLYT1 mouse models, rat hippocampal slices
Merck Research Laboratories, WP44E-200, P. O. Box 4, West Point, PA 19486.