Abdul Nasir, Amir Khan, Jiayi Li, Muhammad Naeem, Atif Ali Khan Khalil, Khalid Khan and Muhammad Qasim* Pages 1360 - 1376 ( 17 )
Nanotechnology has shown promising advancements in the field of drug development and its delivery. In particular, the applications of nanoparticles for treatment and diagnostics of cancer reached such a precision that it can detect a single cancer cell and target it to deliver a payload for the treatment of that cancerous cell. Conventional cancer therapy methods have side effects, and diagnostics techniques are time-consuming and expensive. Nanoparticles (NPs) such as polymeric nanoparticles (nanogels, nanofibers, liposomes), metallic nanoparticles such as gold NP (GNPs), sliver NP (AgNP), calcium nanoparticles (CaNPs), carbon nanotubes (CNTs), graphene, and quantum dots (QDs) have revolutionized cancer diagnostics and treatments due to their high surface charge, size, and morphology. Functionalization of these nanoparticles with different biological molecules, such as antibodies, helps them to target delivery and early detection of cancer cells through their plasmon resonance properties. While some of the magnetic properties of nanoparticles such as iron (Fe), copper (Cu), and carbon NT were also evaluated for detection and treatments of cancer cells. An advanced type of nanoparticles, such as nanobubbles and oxygen-releasing polymers, are helping to address the hypoxia conditions in the cancer microenvironment, while others are employed in photodynamic therapy (PDT) and photothermal therapy (PTT) due to their intrinsic theranostic properties. The green synthesis of nanoparticles has further increased biocompatibility and broadened their applications. In this review paper, we discussed the advancement in nanotechnology and its applications for cancer treatment and diagnostics and highlighted challenges for translation of these advanced nano-based techniques for clinical applications and their green synthesis.
Metallic nanoparticles, Green synthesis, Cancer, Diagnostics, Conventional Therapy, Targeted delivery.
Department of Molecular Science and Technology, Ajou University, Suwon, 16499, Department of Health Sciences and Technology, Gachon Advanced Institute for Health Sciences and Technology, Gachon University, Incheon, 21565, State Key Laboratory of Microbial Metabolism, Joint International Research Laboratory of Metabolic & Developmental Sciences, School of Life Sciences & Biotechnology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, 200240, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310017, Department of Biological Sciences, National University of Medical Sciences, Rawalpindi 46000, Directorate of Science and Technology, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Department of Anatomy, Division of Health Sciences, University of Otago, P.O. Box 56, Dunedin 9054