Mohit K. Tiwari, Dharmendra K. Yadav and Sandeep Chaudhary*
According to WHO “World health statistics 2018”, malaria, alongside acute respiratory infections and diarrhoea, is one of the major infectious disease causing children’s death in between the age of 1-5 years. Similarly, according to another report (2016), malaria accounts for approximately 3.14% of the total disease burden by cause of the world. Although malaria has been widely eradicated in many parts of the world, the global number of cases continues to rise due to rapid spread of malaria parasites that are resistant to antimalarial drugs. Artemisinin 8, a major breakthrough in the antimalarial chemotherapy, was isolated from the plant Artemisia annua in 1972. Its semi-synthetic derivatives such as artemether 9, arteether 10, and artesunic acid 11 are quite effective against multi-drug resistant malaria strains and are currently the drug of choice for the treatment of malaria. In spite of exhibiting excellent antimalarial activity by artemisinin and its derivatives; parallel programmes for the discovery of novel natural and synthetic peroxides were also the area of investigation by medicinal chemists all over the world. In this efforts, after extensive research, natural ozonide (1,2,4-trioxolane) was isolated from Adiantum monochlamys (Pteridaceae) and Oleandra wallichii (Davalliaceae) in 1976. These naturally occurring stable ozonides inspired chemists to investigate this novel class for antimalarial chemotherapy. Thus, in 1992, first identification of unusually stable synthetic antimalarial 1,2,4-trioxolanes was reported. Thus, an unusual entry to the antimalarial chemotherapy of ozonides occurred in early nineties. This review highlights the recent advancements and historical developments observed during the past 42 years (1976-2018) focusing mainly on important ventures of the antimalarial 1,2,4-trioxolanes (ozonides).
Synthetic ozonides, antimalarial peroxides, artemisinin, multi-drug resistant strains.
Laboratory of Organic and Medicinal Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Malaviya National Institute of Technology Jaipur, Jawaharlal Nehru Marg, Jaipur-302017, College of Pharmacy, Gachon University of Medicine and Science, Hambakmoeiro 191, Yeonsu-gu, Incheon city, 406-799, Laboratory of Organic and Medicinal Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Malaviya National Institute of Technology Jaipur, Jawaharlal Nehru Marg, Jaipur-302017