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In Vitro, In Silico and Ex Vivo Studies of Dihydroartemisinin Derivatives as Antitubercular Agents

[ Vol. 19 , Issue. 8 ]

Author(s):

Komal Kalani, Sarfaraz Alam, Vinita Chaturvedi, Shyam Singh, Feroz Khan and Santosh Kumar Srivastava*   Pages 633 - 644 ( 12 )

Abstract:


Introduction: As a part of our drug discovery program for anti-tubercular agents, dihydroartemisinin (DHA-1) was screened against Mtb H37Rv, which showed moderate anti-tubercular activity (>25.0 µg/mL). These results prompted us to carry out the chemical transformation of DHA-1 into various derivatives and study their antitubercular potential.

Materials and Methods: DHA-1 was semi-synthetically converted into four new acyl derivatives (DHA-1A – DHA-1D) and in-vitro evaluated for their anti-tubercular potential against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv virulent strain. The derivatives, DHA-1C (12-O-(4-nitro) benzoyl; MIC 12.5 µg/mL) and DHA-1D (12-O-chloro acetyl; MIC 3.12µg/mL) showed significant activity against the pathogen.

Results: In silico studies of the most active derivative (DHA-1D) showed interaction with ARG448 inhibiting the mycobacterium enzymes. Additionally, it showed no cytotoxicity towards the Vero C1008 cells and Mouse bone marrow derived macrophages.

Conclusion: DHA-1D killed 62% intracellular M. tuberculosis in Mouse bone marrow macrophage infection model. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first-ever report on the antitubercular potential of dihydroartemisinin and its derivatives. Since dihydroartemisinin is widely used as an antimalarial drug; these results may be of great help in anti-tubercular drug development from a very common, inexpensive, and non-toxic natural product.

Keywords:

Dihydroartemisinin, Semi-synthetic derivatives, Anti-tubercular activity, In-silico studies, Ex vivo studies, Multidrug-resistant TB.

Affiliation:

Medicinal Chemistry Department, CSIR-Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, Lucknow-226015, Metabolic & Structural Biology Department, CSIR-Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, Lucknow- 226015, Microbiology Division, Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow-226001, Microbiology Division, Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow-226001, Metabolic & Structural Biology Department, CSIR-Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, Lucknow- 226015, Medicinal Chemistry Department, CSIR-Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, Lucknow-226015

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