Ebtesam Al-Suhaimi*, Vijaya Ravinayagam, B. Rabindran Jermy, Tarhini Mohamad and Abdelhamid Elaissari
The use of protein-based nanoparticles as carriers for drugs targeting protein-protein interactions (PPIs) is an interesting, relatively recent drug delivery strategy. . This review explains protein and protein interactions roles in normal and diseased conditions at nuclear, molecular and cellular levels. Also, the use of protein hormone-based nanoscale in health, disease, and as possible carriers for drugs targeting PPIs was highlighted. DNA transduction and translation signaling in normal and cancer conditions is strongly affected by nuclear proteins and chromatin protein domains. PPIs of the protein play a vital role in controlling chromatin functionality and gene transcription. A synergy between PPI based drugs, radiation, and chemotherapy stimulate the programmed cell death through apoptosis signalling pathway in vitro and in vivo. Targeted protein therapy confirms that the synergistic action decreases the tumor and increases survival. Moreover, PPIs were proven to have a key role in diabetes and obesity The alteration of protein interactions through genetic recombinant (transduction) at early stage may lead to network alteration of insulin resistant signal. The molecular link, protein interaction between presenilin-1 and glutamate transporter occurs in amyloid disease condition and dysfunction of glutamate transport in certain neuro-disease. Some drugs targeting PPIs form corona complex shape in vivo studies increasing its benefits and effectiveness. Oxytocin, a nano-peptide hormone and neurotransmitter is an optimal example to be used for PPIs. Previous studies complexed it with carrier protein (neurophysin) and transported in vesicles for its affinity for storage in granules and release in blood stream. Studies showed a non-competitive binding interaction of hormones oxytocin (one molecule) and vasopressin (two molecules) with neurophysins I or II, respectively. So, protein and hormonal signalling such as oxytocin and associated proteins interactions can be of great significance in nano-drug delivery. Understating related signalling nuclear, molecular and systematic strategies can solve most of the challenges that can be faced in the way of discovering PPI targeting drugs.
Protein-protein Interactions; Nanoparticles; drug carriers; nano-peptide hormone.
Biology Department, College of Science, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, 31441 Dammam, Deanship of Scientific Research & Nanomedicine research department, Institute of Research and Medical Consultations (IRMC), Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, 31441 Dammam, Nanomedicine research department, Institute of Research and Medical Consultations (IRMC), Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, 31441 Dammam, Univ Lyon, University Claude Bernard Lyon-1, CNRS, LAGEP-UMR 5007, F-69622 Lyon, Univ Lyon, University Claude Bernard Lyon-1, CNRS, LAGEP-UMR 5007, F-69622 Lyon