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Current Status and Future Prospects of Small–molecule Protein–protein Interaction (PPI) Inhibitors of Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) and Receptor Activator of NF-κB Ligand (RANKL)

[ Vol. 18 , Issue. 8 ]

Author(s):

Georgia Melagraki, Georgios Leonis, Evangelos Ntougkos, Vagelis Rinotas, Christos Papaneophytou, Thomas Mavromoustakos, George Kontopidis, Eleni Douni, George Kollias* and Antreas Afantitis*   Pages 661 - 673 ( 13 )

Abstract:


The overexpression of Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) is directly related to the development of several autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid and psoriatic arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, Crohn's disease, refractory asthma, and multiple sclerosis. Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor Kappa- B Ligand (RANKL) belongs to the TNF family and is the primary mediator of osteoclast-induced bone resorption through interaction with its receptor RANK. The function of RANKL is physiologically inhibited by the action of osteoprotegerin (OPG), which is a decoy receptor that binds to RANKL and prevents the process of osteoclastogenesis. Malfunction among RANK/RANKL/OPG can also result in bone loss diseases, including postmenopausal osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis, bone metastasis and multiple myeloma. To disrupt the unwanted functions of TNF and RANKL, current attempts focus on blocking TNF and RANKL binding to their receptors. In this review, we present the research efforts toward the development of low-molecular-weight pharmaceuticals that directly block the detrimental actions of TNF and RANKL.

Keywords:

Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF), osteoprotegerin (OPG), postmenopausal osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis, disease, metastasis.

Affiliation:

Hellenic Army Academy, Vari, NovaMechanics Ltd, Nicosia, Division of Immunology, Biomedical Sciences Research Center `Alexander Fleming`, Vari, Division of Immunology, Biomedical Sciences Research Center `Alexander Fleming`, Vari, Veterinary School, University of Thessaly, Karditsa, Laboratory of Organic Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Veterinary School, University of Thessaly, Karditsa, Division of Immunology, Biomedical Sciences Research Center `Alexander Fleming`, Vari, Division of Immunology, Biomedical Sciences Research Center `Alexander Fleming`, Vari, Division of Immunology, Biomedical Sciences Research Center `Alexander Fleming`, Vari

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