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An Update on MDMX and Dual MDM2/X Inhibitors

[ Vol. 18 , Issue. 8 ]

Author(s):

Margarida Espadinha, Valentina Barcherini, Elizabeth A. Lopes and Maria M.M. Santos*   Pages 647 - 660 ( 14 )

Abstract:


The tumor suppressor protein p53 is inactivated in all types of human cancers, either by negative regulation, by mutation or deletion of its gene. Specifically, in tumors that retain wild-type (wt) p53 status, p53 is inactivated by interaction with negative regulators, such as MDM2 and MDMX. These two proteins are found to be overexpressed in several different types of cancers, and the restoration of p53 activity by inhibition of these proteins is now considered an important approach for cancer treatment. The first studies using this strategy to reactivate wt p53 were focused on the development of small molecules that could inhibit MDM2. In this way, p53 could be liberated and act again as a tumor suppressor. From these studies, nine small molecules have reached clinical trials. More recently, MDMX was also identified as an important therapeutic target to efficiently reactivate wt p53, and it is now considered that, for full p53 reactivation, dual inhibition of MDM2 and MDMX is required. In this review we will focus on the most recent advances in the discovery of novel small molecules and stapled peptides that act as selective MDMX inhibitors or as dual MDM2/X inhibitors.

Keywords:

Anti-tumor agents, dual inhibitors, MDMX, MDM2, protein-protein interaction inhibitors, p53, p53 reactivation, small molecules.

Affiliation:

Research Institute for Medicines (iMed.ULisboa), Faculty of Pharmacy, Universidade de Lisboa. Av. Prof. Gama Pinto, 1649-003 Lisbon, Research Institute for Medicines (iMed.ULisboa), Faculty of Pharmacy, Universidade de Lisboa. Av. Prof. Gama Pinto, 1649-003 Lisbon, Research Institute for Medicines (iMed.ULisboa), Faculty of Pharmacy, Universidade de Lisboa. Av. Prof. Gama Pinto, 1649-003 Lisbon, Research Institute for Medicines (iMed.ULisboa), Faculty of Pharmacy, Universidade de Lisboa. Av. Prof. Gama Pinto, 1649-003 Lisbon

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