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Polyamines and Related Nitrogen Compounds in the Chemotherapy of Neglected Diseases Caused by Kinetoplastids

[ Vol. 18 , Issue. 5 ]

Author(s):

Juan A. Bisceglia*, Maria C. Mollo, Nadia Gruber and Liliana R. Orelli*   Pages 321 - 368 ( 48 )

Abstract:


Neglected diseases due to the parasitic protozoa Leishmania and Trypanosoma (kinetoplastids) affect millions of people worldwide, and the lack of suitable treatments has promoted an ongoing drug discovery effort to identify novel nontoxic and cost-effective chemotherapies. Polyamines are ubiquitous small organic molecules that play key roles in kinetoplastid parasites metabolism, redox homeostasis and in the normal progression of cell cycles, which differ from those found in the mammalian host. These features make polyamines attractive in terms of antiparasitic drug development. The present work provides a comprehensive insight on the use of polyamine derivatives and related nitrogen compounds in the chemotherapy of kinetoplastid diseases. The amount of literature on this subject is considerable, and a classification considering drug targets and chemical structures were made. Polyamines, aminoalcohols and basic heterocycles designed to target the relevant parasitic enzyme trypanothione reductase are discussed in the first section, followed by compounds directed to less common targets, like parasite SOD and the aminopurine P2 transporter. Finally, the third section comprises nitrogen compounds structurally derived from antimalaric agents. References on the chemical synthesis of the selected compounds are reported together with their in vivo and/or in vitro IC50 values, and structureactivity relationships within each group are analyzed. Some favourable structural features were identified from the SAR analyses comprising protonable sites, hydrophobic groups and optimum distances between them. The importance of certain pharmacophoric groups or amino acid residues in the bioactivity of polyamine derived compounds is also discussed.

Keywords:

Neglected diseases, Leishmania, Trypanosoma, Polyamines, Nitrogen compounds, Drug research.

Affiliation:

Departamento de Quimica Organica, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquimica, Universidad de Buenos Aires. CONICET, Buenos Aires, Departamento de Quimica Organica, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquimica, Universidad de Buenos Aires. CONICET, Buenos Aires, Departamento de Quimica Organica, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquimica, Universidad de Buenos Aires. CONICET, Buenos Aires, Departamento de Quimica Organica, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquimica, Universidad de Buenos Aires. CONICET, Buenos Aires

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