Wenzhen Liao, Tian-Tian Zhang, Liqian Gao, Su Seong Lee, Jie Xu, Han Zhang, Zhaogang Yang, Zhaoyu Liu* and Wen Li* Pages 2286 - 2301 ( 16 )
Designing new vaccines is one of the most challenging tasks for public health to prevent both infectious and chronic diseases. Even though many research scientists have spent great efforts in improving the specificity, sensitivity and safety of current available vaccines, there are still much space on how to effectively combine different biomaterials and technologies to design universal or personalized vaccines. Traditionally, vaccines were made based on empirical approaches designed to mimic immunity induced by natural infection. Either live attenuated or killed whole microorganisms were used as vaccines. With the development of biomaterial science, DNA/RNA, recombinant vector, adjuvant and nanoparticles greatly expand the category of vaccines. More importantly, with the tremendous advances of new technologies including genomics, proteomics and immunomics, the paradigm of vaccine design has shifted from microbiological to sequence-based approaches. This ever-growing large amount of genomic data and new genomic approaches such as comparative genomics, reverse vaccinology and pan-genomics, will play critical roles in novel vaccine design and enable development of more effective vaccines to cure and control both chronic and infectious diseases. In this review, we summarize current various vaccine materials, advanced technologies and combinational strategies to integrate biomaterials and advanced technologies for vaccine design, which we hope will provide some very useful guidelines and perspectives for the vaccine design.
Vaccine, genomics, reverse vaccinology, antigen, immune response.
Department of Food Science and Technology, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, 510640, Department of Food Science and Technology, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, 510640, Institute of Bioengineering and Nanotechnology, 31 Biopolis Way, The Nanos, Singapore 138669, Institute of Bioengineering and Nanotechnology, 31 Biopolis Way, The Nanos, Singapore 138669, Scholl of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, 19104, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, 30043, Department of chemical and biomolecular engineering, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, 43210, Center of Molecular and Translational Medicine, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA, Department of Hematology and Medical Oncology, School of Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, 30043