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Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Potential of One Hundred Medicinal Plants

[ Vol. 17 , Issue. 12 ]

Author(s):

Waseem Hassan, Hamsa Noreen, Shakila Rehman, Shehnaz Gul, Mohammad Amjad Kamal, Jean Paul Kamdem, Bakht Zaman and Joao B.T. da Rocha   Pages 1336 - 1370 ( 35 )

Abstract:


Reactive species are produced in biological system because of redox reactions. The imbalance in pro-oxidant and antioxidant homeostasis leads to the production of toxic reactive oxygen and nitrogen species like hydrogen peroxide, organic peroxides, hydroxyl radicals, superoxide anion and nitric oxide. Inactivation of metabolic enzymes, oxidation of biomolecules and cellular damage are some of the prominent characteristics of reactive species. Similarly, oxidative stress has been associated with more than one hundred (100) pathologies such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, pancreatic and liver diseases, joint disorders, cardiac fibrosis, acute respiratory distress syndrome, neurological diseases (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Huntington’s disorder, Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease), ageing and cancer etc. The toxicity of reactive species is balanced by the integrated antioxidant systems, which include enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants. Antioxidant therapies or defenses protect the biological sites by removing or quenching the free radicals (prooxidants). Medicinal plants can not only protect the oxidative damage, but also play a vital role in health maintenance and prevention of chronic degenerative diseases. This review will provide a valuable discussion of one hundred (100) well known medicinal plants, which may add to the optimization of antioxidants rank. Besides, some of the antioxidant evaluation techniques or mechanisms via which medicinal plants act as antioxidants are also described.

Keywords:

Oxidative Stress, Antioxidants, Medicinal Plants, Pro-oxidant, Redox Reaction.

Affiliation:

Institute of Chemical Sciences, University of Peshawar, Peshawar -25120, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Institute of Chemical Sciences, University of Peshawar, Peshawar -25120, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Institute of Chemical Sciences, University of Peshawar, Peshawar -25120, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Institute of Chemical Sciences, University of Peshawar, Peshawar -25120, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, King Fahd Medical Research Center, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589, Centro de Ciencias Biologicas e da Saude-CCBS, Departamento de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade Regional do Cariri (URCA), Pimenta, Crato-CE, CEP 63.100-000, Institute of Chemical Sciences, University of Peshawar, Peshawar -25120, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Departamento de Bioquimica e Biologia Molecular, Bioquimica Toxicologica e Programa de Pos- Graduacao em Educacao em Ciencias: Quimica da Vida e Saude, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS 97105-900



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